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Assembly of a barrel, called "Mise en Rose" in French.
A cooper is a person trained to make wooden casks,vats, buckets,and other staved containers from timber that was usually heated or steamed продолжение здесь make it pliable.
In addition to wood, other materials, such as iron, were used in the manufacturing process.
The profession is the origin of the surname.
Everything a cooper produces is referred to collectively as cooperage.
A cask is any piece of cooperage containing a bouge, bilge, or bulge in the middle of the container.
A barrel is a type of cask, so the terms "barrel-maker" and "barrel-making" refer to just one aspect of a cooper's work.
The facility in which casks are made is also referred to as a cooperage.
It is also the origin of the Tonnelier and Tonnellier; По ссылке Βαρελάς ; Bødker;or Fassbinder Faßbinder, literally 'cask-binder''tub-maker', and ; and Cuypers; ; ;and ;, and Bednarczyk; ; and ; Bodnar, Bodnaruk, and Bodnarchuk, and Бондаренко ; and Ukrainian Бондарев and Бочаров ; ; Tanoeiro and Toneleiro;Tonelero, and via Greek Varela; Bachvarov Бъчваров ; Bacvarovski Бачваровски ; Bačvar; and Bottai from botte.
Examples of a cooper's work include,tubs, pipes,pins and breakers.
Traditionally, a was the man who fitted the wooden or metal hoops around the barrels or buckets that the cooper had made, essentially an assistant to the cooper.
The is derived from that profession.
With time, many coopers took on the role of the hooper themselves.
An in the tomb ofdating to 2600 BC, shows a wooden tub made of staves, bound together with wooden hoops, and used to measure corn.
Another Egyptian взято отсюда painting dating to 1900 BC shows a узнать больше здесь and 4 made of staves in use at the grape harvest.
Palm-wood casks were reported in use 4 ancient.
In Europe, buckets and casks dating to 200 BC have been found preserved in the mud of lake villages.
A lake village near dating to the late has yielded one complete tub and a number of wooden staves.
The historian reports that cooperage in Europe originated with the in Alpine villages where they stored their beverages in wooden casks bound with hoops.
Pliny identified three types of coopers: ordinary coopers, wine coopers and 4 who made large casks.
Large casks contained staves that were longer and more numerous and were corresponding more difficulty to 4 />Roman coopers tended to be independent tradesmen, passing their skills on to their sons.
The Greek geographer records wooden were lined with pitch to stop leakage and preserve the wine.
Barrels were sometimes used for military purposes.
Empty barrels were sometimes used to make to cross rivers.
Empty casks were used to line the walls of shallow wells from at least Roman times.
Such casks were found in 1897 during archaeological excavation of Roman in Britain.
They were made of and the staves were one and a half inches 4 and featured grooves where the heads fitted.
They had Roman numerals scratched on the surface of each stave to help with reassembly.
In Britain wooden barrels were used to 4 ale, butter, honey and.
Drinking containers were also made from small staves ofor.
These items required considerable craftsmanship to hold liquids and might be bound with finely worked precious metals.
They were highly valued items and were sometimes buried with the dead as.
Churns, buckets and tubs made from staves have been excavated from peat bogs and lake villages in Europe.
A large keg 4 a bucket were found in 4 Viking excavated near Oslo Fiord in 1880.
There were four divisions in the cooper's craft.
The "dry" or "slack" cooper made containers that would be used to ship such as cereals, nails, tobacco, fruits, and vegetables.
The "dry-tight" cooper made casks приведенная ссылка to keep dry goods in and moisture out.
Gunpowder and flour casks are examples of a dry-tight cooper's work.
The "white" cooper made straight-staved containers like washtubs, buckets, and butter churns, страница would hold water and other liquids but did not allow shipping of the liquids.
Usually there was no bending of wood involved in white cooperage.
The "wet" or "tight" cooper made casks for long-term storage and transportation of liquids that could even be under pressure, as with beer.
The "general" cooper worked on ships, on the docks, in breweries, wineries and distilleries, and in warehouses, and was 4 for cargo while in storage or продолжить чтение />Coopering of casks on a dock for a whaling ship.
Ships, in theprovided привожу ссылку work for coopers.
They made water and provision casks, the contents of which sustained crew and passengers on long voyages.
They also made barrels посмотреть больше contain high-value commodities, such as wine and sugar.
The proper stowage of casks on ships about to sail was an important stevedoring skill.
Casks of various sizes were used to accommodate the sloping walls of the hull and make maximum use of limited space.
Casks also had to be tightly packed, to ensure they did not move during the voyage and endanger the ship, crew and cask contents.
Whaling ships in particular, featuring long voyages and large crews, needed many casks — forother provisions and water — and to store the whale oil.
Sperm whale oil was a particularly difficult substance to contain, due to its highly viscous nature, and oil coopers were perhaps the most skilled tradesmen in pre-industrial cooperage.
Whaling ships usually carried a cooper on board, to assemble shooks and maintain casks.
Coopers in Britain started to organise themselves as early as 1298.
The is one of the oldest in London.
It still survives today although it is now largely a charitable organisation.
Many coopers did work for breweries.
Beer kegs had to particularly strong in order to contain the pressure of the fermenting liquid, and the rough handling they received when transported, sometime over long distances, to pubs where they were https://xn--c1akdc2afchgc.xn--p1ai/amp/radiator-stalnoy-kermi-ftvfkv-10-600-2600.html into tap-rooms or were lowered into cellars.
Prior to the mid-20th century, посмотреть еще cooper's trade flourished in the United States; a dedicated trade journal was published, the National Cooper's Journal, with advertisements from firms that supplied everything from barrel staves to purpose-built machinery.
In смотрите подробнее 21st century, coopers mostly operate barrel-making machinery and assemble casks for the wine and spirits industry.
Traditionally, the interior of the staves were heated to make them easier to bend.
This is still done, but now because the slightly toasted interior of the staves imparts a certain flavour to the wine or spirit contents over time that is much admired by experts.
In the United Kingdom, the trade of master cooper is dwindling; it is thought that the last remaining master cooper in England works in .
Oxford: Oxford University Press, p.
Retrieved 23 March 2016.
Retrieved 23 March 2016.
The development of the cooperage industry in the United States, 1620-1940.
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